A quark model of a photon. The frame of reference is suggested by variations in background brightness and shading.

Let particle P be characterized by some repetitive chain of events

$\Psi ^{\sf{P}} = \left( \sf{\Omega}_{\sf{1}}, \sf{\Omega}_{\sf{2}}, \sf{\Omega}_{\sf{3}} \ \ldots \ \right)$

where each orbital cycle is a bundle of quarks

$\sf{\Omega}^{\sf{P}} = \left\{ \sf{q}_{\sf{1}}, \sf{q}_{\sf{2}}, \sf{q}_{\sf{3}} \ \ldots \ \right\}$

and each quark is described by its phase $\delta _{\theta} = \pm 1$ which depends on the reference frame. Use the phase to sort the quarks in $\sf{\Omega}$ into a pair of sets $\mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}}$ and $\mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}}$ called phase-components of P so that $\mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}}$ and $\mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}}$ are out of phase with each other. Then

$\sf{\Omega}^{ \sf{P}} = \left\{ \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}} , \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}} \right\}$and$\delta_{\theta} \left( \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}} \right) =- \, \delta_{\theta} \left( \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}} \right)$

Finally let P be an almost perfectly anti-symmetric particle with respect to the phase so that $\mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}} = \overline{\mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}}}$ for all quarks except down-quarks. Definition: phase anti-symmetric particles like P that also have a spin of one are called photons. They are usually represented using the symbol $\gamma$. For a specific example of a photon consider a particle defined from the bundle of quarks

$4\sf{e} + 4\bar{\sf{e}} + 4\sf{g} + 4\bar{\sf{g}} + 4\sf{u} + 4\bar{\sf{u}} \to \sf{\Omega} \left( \gamma_ {\sf{e}} \right)$

parsed as

$4\sf{e} + 4\bar{\sf{g}} + 4\bar{\sf{u}} \to \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}}$and$4\bar{\sf{e}} + 4\sf{g} + 4{\sf{u}} \to \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}}$

This photon is illustrated in the accompanying movie where quarks in the front and back rows of the image are out-of-phase anti-particles of each other. The phase depends on a frame of reference which is suggested in the movie by variations in background brightness, shading and horizons.

Sensory interpretation: Photons are objectifed from experiences that have a lot of symmetry between sensations felt on the left and right sides. For example, binocular or stereoscopic vision.
Right.png Next step: characteristics of photons.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License