Notice: this page is actively under construction
Notice: this page is actively under construction

For any photon γ and any sort of thermodynamic quark $\sf{Z}$, the net number of quarks $\Delta n$ is always zero because photons are defined as phase anti-symmetric particles

$\Delta n ^{\sf{Z}} \left( \gamma \right) = 0$

So $n ^{\sf{z}} = n ^{\sf{\bar{z}}}$ and the coefficient of any ordinary-quark $\sf{z}$ in a photon is the same as the coefficient of its corresponding anti-quark $\bar{\sf{z}}$. And remember that anti-particles are defined by exchanging ordinary-quarks with anti-quarks. So two photons that are anti-particles to each other are composed from exactly the same quarks. This means that all the intrinsic characteristics of any photon γ will be the same as for its corresponding anti-photon γ . Accordingly we often say that photons are their own anti-particles. But photons also have relative characteristics which may differ between γ and γ depending on their juxtaposition with a frame of reference. For example, recall that the wavevector $\overline{\kappa}$ depends on the phase so that

$\overline{\kappa} \left( \gamma \right) = - \, \overline{\kappa} \left( \overline{\gamma} \right)$

and the two photons γ and γ have symmetrically opposed wavevectors. This sort of relative distinction between anti-particles is illustrated in the movie below. Both photons are composed from exactly the same quarks. But they are nonetheless different and easily distinguishable when compared with the frame-of-reference as indicated by variations in shading and background.

A comparison of two electronic photons that are anti-particles of each other. They are both composed from the same quarks, but differ in their relationship with the frame of reference. The frame is visually suggested by variations in shading, horizons and background brightness.

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